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[项目新闻] [Zooniverse] [人工协作类] [天文类] Galaxy Zoo

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发表于 2010-6-6 11:44:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 qysnn 于 2021-2-27 05:16 编辑

项目官网:zooniverse.org/projects/zookeeper/galaxy-zoo/
2010 年 6 月 6 日

开始了荷兰语版本的 Galaxy Zoo



We have just started the polish version of the Galaxy Zoo Hubble! To get to it, hoover your mouse over a small English-flag icon in the upper left corner of the main page. It has been a major effort, not only new sections, added for Hubble, have been translated but the whole polish text has been carefully revised.

Otworzyliśmy polską wersję Galaxy Zoo Hubble. Aby tam dotrzeć, trzeba przejechać myszką nad ikoną z angielską flagą w lewym górnym rogu strony głównej. Oprócz tłumaczenia nowych fragmentów związanych ze zdjęciami z teleskopu Hubble’a, przy okazji, przeredagowaliśmy całą dotychczasową zawartość strony.

We think, however, that it was every bit worth the effort! Galaxy Zoo is very popular in Poland and Hubble data open completely new doors to the Universe so we are very happy to open them a bit wider by providing the Polish language version  .

Sporo roboty, ale naszym zdaniem było warto! Galaktyczne Zoo jest popularne w Polsce a zdjęcia z teleskopu Hubble’a otwierają zupełnie nowe możliwości, dobrze więc było udostępnić je wszystkim  .

And many thanks to Robert for preparing the excellent configuration file for translation!

Serdeczne podziękowania należą się Robertowi za przygotowanie do tłumaczenia znakomitego pliku konfiguracyjnego.

BTW, Mergers and SN-Hunt are available in Polish as well!

Przy okazji warto wspomnieć że oprócz Hubble’a, także Mergers i SN Hunt mają swoje polskie wersje językowe!

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发表于 2010-6-6 11:59:33 | 显示全部楼层
英语就够呛  还来荷兰语
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发表于 2010-6-15 14:57:23 | 显示全部楼层
2010 年 6 月 15 日

Hunting Voorwerpjes from Arizona
作者:BillKeel
We have a team working at Kitt Peak again, this time using a spectrograph to chase down Voorwerpjes. As the Dutch diminutive indicates, these are like Hanny’s Voorwerp, only smaller. They are clouds of gas within galaxies (or out to their edges) which are ionized by a luminous active galactic nucleus. In most of these, unlike Hanny’s Voorwerp, we can see other signs of the active nucleus, but the same considerations of hidden versus faded are important. Zooites have given us a rich new list of potential objects, many from the special object hunt set up by Waveney incorporating database queries done by laihro, and more from reports on the Forum. They often show up as oddly-shaped blue zones on the SDSS images, when strong [O III] emission lies in the SDSS g filter. At some redshifts, they look purple, when H-alpha enters the i filter. (links to examples)

I’m also working with four summer students from the SARA consortium at our 0.9m telescope, normally operated remotely but this time hands-on. One of these, Drew, is spending the summer working on Voorwerpjes, and is also working on the spectra. Our first night here was devoted just to training at the SARA telescope.

Last night we started at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope
(pictures)
with a long-slit spectrograph known as GoldCam (for its color). For each galaxy, we’ve used whatever previous data were available – SARA images, processed SDSS data, a few observations by other people – to work out the most informative direction to align the spectrograph slit, which then delivers data all along that line on the sky. To set the orientation, we physically rotate the spectrograph on the back of the telescope, taking care not to snag any of the cables. We have a luxurious span of 7 nights (although they are practically the shortest of the year), so we can plan a pretty extensive study. We needed to concentrate on one spectral region for best sensitivity and spectral resolution, so we are using the blue range (3400-5400 Angstroms). For the redshifts of these galaxies, that lets us measure the strong [O III] emission lines and look for the highly-ionized species He II and [Ne V]. These two species are signposts that the gas is irradiated by the UV- and X-ray-rich spectrum of a quasar or Seyfert nucleus, not a star-forming region. Our first task is to conform that this is the case for many of our candidates. Beyond that, the ratios of the emission lines tell us how dense the gas is in each region, and how strong the ionizing ultraviolet is. That, in turn, suggests whether the nucleus has remained at about the same luminosity over the timespan that its light took to reach these clouds, and whether it is hidden from our view by dense absorbing material. The most exciting cases may the the galaxies that seem to have [O III] clouds but no optical AGN; they could be additional examples of the kind of rapid fading from an active nucleus that we believe went on with IC 2497 and Hanny’s Voorwerp.

One of the galaxies I most wanted to see spectra from is UGC 7342 (picture), among the greatest hits of the forum and Voorwerpje hunt. It has roughly symmetric regions of highly ionized gas reaching 45,000 light-years from the nucleus on each side, which the images suggested were probably ionization cones. These are the result of radiation escaping the nucleus only in two conical regions on opposite sides (around a thick obscuring disk). This phenomenon is seen in some other type 2 Seyfert galaxies, and if the cones are pointed in another direction, we don’t expect to see deep into the nucleus directly.
(SARA images, SDSS processing)

This is a chance to show how we (truth in advertising, mostly Drew over the last couple of weeks) have been using the SDSS images to narrow down the most likely candidates for [O III] clouds and get their exact locations for the spectrum.

We want to look not only at the best candidates, but a representative set of all kinds that have turned up. This includes “purple haze” a fairly shapeless glow combining the colors of [O III] and H-alpha, which we see almost solely around the brilliant nuclei of type 1 Seyfert galaxies. This may be what an ionization cone looks like when we look down its axis.

We’re coordinating what we do with three nights coming up in July using a double spectrograph at the 3-meter Shane telescope of Lick Observatory, being carried out by Vardha Bennert. The telescope is larger and the instrument can get good resolution in blue and red simultaneously, so that it makes sense for us to treat some of what we do now as a screening study which can be followed up next month. (Vardha checked a couple of our candidates during a slow part of the night last December, and confirmed a purple-haze object as genuinely large emission-line clouds. This allayed my concern that these might be artifacts of incomplete registration of the three SDSS filters going into color images).
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发表于 2010-6-19 09:27:25 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 射命丸 文 于 2010-6-19 09:28 编辑

2010 年 6 月 18 日

通缉 - 有趣的 基特峰谱目标!

由于这个在论坛被提出,我们在昨晚就开始在 Voorwerpje 候选中寻找(因为这部分区域的天空是 SDSS 成像),希望你能在论坛的讨论串发表想法告诉我们为什么它们有趣?

(这个提议于6月20日到期)
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发表于 2010-6-19 09:42:55 | 显示全部楼层
2010 年 6 月 19 日

小型星系

这周 OOTW 由 Geoff 提供:

“今天的目标是由 AlexandredOr 发布于2008年5月12日的璀璨矮星系

IC3215.jpg

IC3215

587741727652642945

这是 IC3215 和 UGC7434 ”

相对于我们自己的星系包含有数千亿的恒星,这些矮星系微不足道,它们只有数十亿。这个特别的矮星系是在后发座隐藏着,如果你在 SDSS 用图标工具放大你还会发现 Melotte 111 星群:

Melotte 111.jpg

资料源:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwarf_galaxy, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega_Centauri

位于欧米伽半人马座,实际上可能是一个矮星系,曾经是银河系的卫星星系。
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发表于 2010-6-22 18:57:39 | 显示全部楼层
2010 年 6 月 22 日

公布 Galaxy Zoo iPhone 程序

Help us explore the universe from the park, the train, or the bath*.



Following a number of requests we are today releasing the first mobile Zooniverse application: the Galaxy Zoo iPhone app.

The app, which will run on iPhones, iPod Touches, and iPads, lets you classify galaxies from our Hubble Galaxy Zoo project from anywhere. It has a slick and simple iPhone interface and will challenge you with the same huge galaxy database as the galaxy zoo website.

If you have a long journey ahead and want to pass the time classifying, you can download a stockpile of galaxies via WiFi to keep you going the whole way. And if you run out you can download some more over the 3G or Edge networks.

You can find the app on iTunes, by searching for “Galaxy Zoo”, or with this direct link. You can find background information on the help page.

The app was developed by Oxford cosmologist Joe Zuntz, along with Arfon Smith and Stuart Lynn. They have a bet with Chris that you’ll be able to classify 1 million galaxies with it, and hope you’ll help them win it.
*Please don’t drop your phone in the tub.
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发表于 2010-6-27 19:29:34 | 显示全部楼层
2010 年 6 月 27 日

鲸鱼座的双星




*80 Cet

80 Cet, a star posted by Zooite and moderator Infinity on Sunday 20th June 2010 for Father’s Day, is in fact locked gravitationally to another star, both orbiting around each other on their common centre of mass. Interestingly, around one in three stars in our galaxy are found in binary or multiple star systems.

I couldn’t glean much information on the stars but with the help of SIMBAD and Peter Clark (@lightbulb500) from the Young Astronomers website, we both agreed that it’s likely to be a Red Giant paired with a White Dwarf star -please point out if we have the classification wrong!

Sources: Wikipedia and Binary Stars Blitzed.
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发表于 2010-6-29 16:44:56 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 姫海棠 果 于 2010-6-29 16:47 编辑

2010 年 6 月 24 日

天文学家解决了在 2007 年由 Galaxy Zoo 的一位参与者发现的神秘目标 Hanny's Voorwerp 的分类

详细:http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/25366/

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发表于 2010-7-3 16:46:19 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 姫海棠 果 于 2010-7-10 11:00 编辑

2010 年 7 月 3 日

从一点到碰撞环



上面在 SDSS 上看似无趣的小斑点,转换到哈勃动物园:



这是 AHZ30000yv,一个漂亮的碰撞环形星系!

这个星系有着 1.432 Z(红移)值,因此我们看到的是它91.5亿年前的景象,这是大爆炸后不到50亿年。
而什么导致这个星系产生这个碰撞环呢?一个小星系与这个星系中心碰撞后形成,在这个所有引力崩溃的过程会创造出大量的年轻炽热的蓝星。


扩展阅读:
SDSS 中星系的颜色:Redshift chart

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发表于 2010-7-10 10:51:19 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 姫海棠 果 于 2010-7-10 11:26 编辑

2010 年 7 月 10 日

贪婪的黑洞



SDSS J142005.59+530036.7 from AEGIS

这个目标有个富有想象力的名字:SDSS J142005.59+530036.7。它潜伏在牧夫座,虽然它看起来像一个恒星,但其实它是一个类星体,距离地球有153亿光年之远。

这个星系的中心是一个比起其他星系要大的超大质量的黑洞。这是一种活动星系核。活动星系核是星系中心有超大质量黑洞并不断的吞噬他周围的物质,如恒星和气体。这会让这个黑洞周围形成一个圈炸面圈形状的吸积盘。而它的旋转导致物质的摩擦,让星系释放出强烈的辐射。这些星系的中心可以使它们比星系本身更具活力,因此你从图片上看到的是一个恒星般的物体,其实这是该星系的核心。

这些能量会近光速的向两极集中喷射出距离黑洞中心数千光年的高能量等离子体,根据这些喷射流相对于我们的位置,这些活动星系核会被命名为射电星系,蝎虎型类星体,赛弗特星系等等。这种情况喷射流接近指向我们的是类星体。

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发表于 2010-7-12 00:21:55 | 显示全部楼层
2010  年 7 月 11 日



祝贺 Galaxy Zoo 生日快乐!

今天是 Galaxy Zoo 的3周年。三年间我们创造了很棒的科学,带领我们跨越遥远的宇宙,并建立了 Zooniverse。

P.S. 你可以到这里了解我和 Kevin 讨论他在活跃星系的工作:http://blogs.zooniverse.org/gala ... irthday-galaxy-zoo/

P.P.S. 感谢大家的贺卡和祝愿:http://www.galaxyzooforum.org/index.php?topic=277992.0

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发表于 2010-7-30 20:49:36 | 显示全部楼层
2010 年 7 月 17 日

一则好消息!
Galaxy Zoo 利用钱德拉研究并合星系的计划被批准。

今年早些时候提交的一份建议书,利用钱德拉X射线空间天文台来观察一系列并合星系。目标列表中的  Cycle 12 刚刚公布出来并进行了扫描:http://cxc.harvard.edu/target_li ... rgets_by_radec.html
你可以找到一组目标名称像“GZ_Merger_AGN_1”。这些美丽的并合星系目标是由你在参与 Galaxy Zoo 1 和 Merger Hunt 中所发现的。这 12 个被批准的目标如下:

GZ_merger_targets.jpg

这12个并合星系都非常漂亮,但它们有一些相同之处:它们都有活动星系核(AGN)- 它们喂养着在它们的中心的超大质量黑洞。
X射线很好的找到这些巨大黑洞,但我们已经所有这12个目标都是 AGN,那为什么要再去观察它们?因为我们正在寻找一个神秘的稀罕事件:双子 AGN!

其中只有极少数目标被偶然发现。我们相信每一个庞大的星系的中心都有一个超大质量黑洞,当两个星系并合,那么这两个黑洞会围绕一段时间直到它们并合。我们的目标是让钱德拉去研究这12个并合星系,系统的找出双子 AGN 在并合过程中它们的两个黑洞的细节和特征。从而了解这阶段是否寻常或重要,并搞清楚黑洞在星系并合中到底发生了什么,因为它们在那里是注定要并合的,形成一个新的星系中心的一个超大质量黑洞。

像往常一样,它可能需要相当长的时间才能得到数据。观察的期间将无法启动这些任务,而观察大约需要1年的时间。
其实我们的观察时间很短而且不受任何时间约束(它们是星系,它们是不会动的!),钱德拉的运营者将最有可能安排我们的观察活动在较长的项目和时间敏感的观察之间,所以我们不能清楚他们什么时候会开始。当然,一旦我们获得了数据,我们会及时向大家发布。

哦,你可能会注意到一些目标可能在不久的未来出现 Merger Zoo:http://mergers.galaxyzoo.org/
我们需要你的帮助和充分的理解。。

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发表于 2010-7-30 21:00:56 | 显示全部楼层
2010 年 7 月 28 日

Zoo 1 的数据免费公开!

现在 Galaxy Zoo 原始数据已经公开:http://arxiv.org/abs/1007.3265

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发表于 2010-8-11 17:09:18 | 显示全部楼层
2010-08-02

Supernova updates

Hello from the
William Herschel Telescope, where I’m observing some of those lovely supernova candidates that have been pouring out of The Supernova Zoo lately.

It’s been a while since our last update. We’ve been running supernova zoo in a very serious way now for several months, and, after ironing out a few little bugs and adding some improvements, the zoo is making a massive contribution to the supernova identification effort in The Palomar Transient Factory. The zoo has already classified some 20,000 supernova  andidates, usually several hundred every day; it’s a fabulous effort. You’ve classified every supernova candidate that we’ve put in the zoo!

We also hope that you’re beginning to see feedback on the supernova candidates that you spend your time classifying (at least the better ones!). From this current observing run I’ve been adding comments as I classify the events that you’ve highlighted, so you might see them appearing in your “MySN” area (of course, the more you classify, the more likely this is to happen!).

Here are some of your nice recent finds, all Type Ia Supernovae.

This one seems to live in a galaxy located in a cluster of galaxies:



This is one in a nearby NGC galaxy – the SN is located directly in one of the spiral arms.



And this one is also in a spiral galaxy – but one that is more edge on:



We’re currently preparing a scientific publication that will detail supernova zoo and how it works – and we also have plans to add a new survey to give you even more supernova to play with. So stay tuned!
OK, my exposure has just finished, so I’ll sign off here and go and see what the latest supernova candidate turned out to be!

– Mark

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发表于 2010-8-11 17:11:56 | 显示全部楼层
2010-08-02

Me, HST and the history of surveys
作者:Boris Häußler

Before I start with a new series of posts, please let me introduce myself.



My name is Boris Häußler (look at my horribly out-of-date website here). I am German but currently working as a research fellow in Nottingham, UK, where I have just recently started my second postdoc with Steven Bamford, whom many people here may know. I have spent the last years (actually, my whole scientific life so far) working on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, mainly on the GEMS and STAGES surveys, and have gathered particular experience in the field of galaxy profile fitting, trying to measure sizes, shapes, etc. of distant galaxies. Whereas my previous projects have mainly been working on galaxies at redshift z~0.7, my new job is trying to do similar and more advanced things on more local galaxies, mainly SDSS galaxies, which of course everyone familiar with Galaxy Zoo will know as these are the galaxies classified in both Galaxy Zoo and Galaxy Zoo 2. Initially, one would think that this is a much easier job to do, but as this data is from ground-based telescopes, it proves to be challenging.



This brings me to an interesting position. Although Galaxy Zoo is not my primary science project, I am now connected to the survey through Steven, our galaxy sample and (for now) more directly through this blog. Having worked on HST galaxies for ages, it is of course very interesting for me to see these galaxies now being classified in Galaxy Zoo: Hubble. Having created some of the colour images that both GEMS and STAGES have used for outreach purposes, I have looked at thousands of these galaxies myself and know how stunningly beautiful they can be. I very often got lost on our images, simply browsing around and being fasctinated by the variety of the galaxies. At least in GEMS I know many galaxies by heart and could possibly directly point you to at least some of the brighter and/or more interesting galaxies.
Being kind of an HST expert, Steven has asked if I would want to write a series of posts about HST, an offer that I found hard to turn down, so I’ve decided to write quite a long series about the HST, its history, its future and especially introducing some of the bigger HST surveys, some of which of course build the content of Galaxy Zoo: Hubble now. But before I write and post all this, I would be interested to know what people would actually want to know about Hubble and everything connected with it. So if you have any comments, any wishes, any questions, please post them below and I will try to answer them in the future.

My current plan for the next months contains the following posts, roughly running through the history of Hubble in chronological order:
  • Who is Edwin Hubble, the man that gave HST it’s name?
  • History of Hubble, the planning and the start 20 years ago
  • HST gets spectacles, first service mission
  • HDF, the Hubble Deep Field, the first famous survey,
  • Another service mission, putting new cameras (e.g. ACS) on HST
  • GOODS, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey
  • GEMS, Galaxy Evolution from Morphologies and SED
  • AEGIS , the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary survey
  • HUDF, the Hubble Ultra Deep Survey, the deepest survey ever made
  • STAGES, Space Telescope Abell901/902 Galaxy Evolution Survey
  • COSMOS, the Cosmic Evolution survey
  • The service mission to put in another camera (WFC3)
  • Upcoming surveys: CANDELS
  • The Future of HST
  • HST’s successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)


If you want to know about anything else, please let me know below.

Thanks and Cheers for now,

Boris

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